Last Updated: Tuesday, 19 December 2023 16:08

RNG and pRNG at an online casino

RNG and pRNG at online casino
"Random Number Generation is too important to be left to chance"… This is quote from Robert Cove is very powerful for every gambler. That fact entirely drives our life, and many online and land-based casinos exist thanks to that. Any modern gambling house is entirely depending on the true RNG. If RNG is false, everything goes down the drain. Furthermore, any game could be hacked, and the scammers would hit big wins. The most exciting part is that all online casinos don`t have a true RNG, but pRNG – pseudorandom number generation.


I was quite shocked when I found it out. Why would such well-known companies use a false generation? Is it safe? Doesn`t it contradict with the random Roulette spin or random distribution of cards that the casino should use? Yes and no. pRNG – quite a dominant part of the software, is constantly generating random numbers. But be aware, it does not work as it is supposed to. Instead of generating a random number, it creates one, based on an algorithm.

What is true RNG?

  • There are pRNG and true RNG, and the last one is the opposite of the first. In this case, it is not about a program but a hardware (electronic device), which may physically be connected to a computer. Those are manufactured by specialised companies and are considered extremely complex.
  • Such devices operate as follows. A physical phenomenon is considered, for example, a thermal noise. Then by using a comparator (or any other device), it is translated into a sequence of ones and zeros (bits). This sequence is random, not just an approach to it.
  • The cons of such “machines” are that they are quite slow. They are slower than pRNG. Well, the last one is a perfect choice of online casinos, so it is mostly used. Note that all pRNGs are entirely different. They may be based on various algorithms. There are high-quality and poor-quality algorithms: the better, the more reliable.

Can pRNG be hacked?

  • Any pseudorandom number generator may theoretically be hacked: all you need to do is to understand the way it operates and predict with a certain probability the subsequent outcomes. In practice, it is more difficult than it may seem. It is almost impossible due to the “permutation” technique.
  • The basic numbers from pRNG operating algorithm are theoretically defined in advance and cannot be changed. But to provide better security against third-party hackers, from time to time, these numbers are replaced by random ones. At that moment, the algorithm stops working and turns to 90 degrees. After that, the tracking of outcomes is impossible. There is no device that would be able to find at what point another number replaces a number. There is not enough time and computing power to do that.
  • There have been cases of hacking casino games. For example, you may have heard Ron Harris story, a specialist in slot machines. His job was to find the machine bugs. Of course, the smart Ron made use of his position and won several Jackpots at bugged Vegas slot machines.
  • In the end, Harris was sent to prison and banned from playing American casinos (and probably of the whole world). Harris had not hacked pRNG, but he made use of its bugs. The modern generator alternatives are better and more secure.

Is there any way of managing the winnings?

  • Theoretically, you know pRNG outcomes by understanding the algorithm. That is, you know the winning sector at Roulette or the winning combination at the slot machine. That is just a theory. In reality, it is more difficult than it may seem.
  • Quite often, each new number is generated as follows. A basic number is taken (or more), a mathematical calculation is performed, and the outcome is an entirely different number.
  • The generated number is the new basic number. And so on, cyclically. I mean a “number”, not 47 or 90, but a BIGGER number.
  • The outcome is a long chain of random values, which is quite random most of the times. That means pRNG is random in the defined limits (for a specific online slot the limit may be the total number of symbols combinations on the five reels (and here we talk about millions of combinations)). pRNG is based on a specific algorithm that is applied all the time.

How did the old slots work?

If the creation of the perfect conditions of a true RNG is not so easy, then how did the old slot machines work? In reality, it is not so difficult to get a series of random outcomes. Casino Roulette is out there for a reason. The croupier throws the ball, and that responds to the physical laws, and still, you cannot know the exact outcome. On the other hand, that outcome would not be 100% random (as the quantum phenomena are).

However, that is quite enough. The first slot machines worked the same way. Being mechanical, most of the time, they dropped random outcomes. You could cheat by using their bugs, but here they come – slots – with fixes and improvements. There was a long way in the creation of an electronic device that would work like a mechanical one; a special focus was required while converting the random system—time for handy RNGs.

How does modern pRNG work?

Once the Spin button is pushed, the outcome has already been chosen. RNG is activated, and a series of numbers are selected, which denotes a specific position of the reels. However, the slot behaves quite differently. It makes you think the opposite until the last moment – the reels effect.

You may be a little bit disappointed about that fact, the slot may lose a bit of its magic, but still, the outcome is always random. By the way, the result of free spins is also chosen in advance. That is the moment you push the Spin button. Again, there is nothing weird. The slot knows the outcome, but you do not. That is the catch. Speaking of that, you better avoid such thoughts and pretend to play in a beautiful world of gambling.

Who is responsible for RNG?

  • RNGs are regularly verified. Although the game has been fully verified during the testing phase, independent companies perform the audit. They must be approved by the same jurisdiction the online casino operates.
  • The most trusted companies of that list are Technical Systems Testing (TST), eCOGRA and Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC). Most often, the verification is confirmed by an appropriate certificate, where you may find RTP values of all games (cards games, table games, slots and so on) and where RNG operation of each game is confirmed – BlackJack, Roulette and so on.
  • The certificate may be accessed using the provided link on the casino homepage. It is there for a reason. Note that the certificate should be accessed via a link, it cannot be placed on the casino site (otherwise it would be edited quite easy). By clicking on the link, the user is redirected to the site of the company that does the verifications. How is RNG verified? A series of tests are performed, which should confirm the random outcomes. Moreover, you should note that big audit companies really value their reputation and will hardly issue one of their certificates.
  • You should understand that the certificate does not guarantee a fair operation—still a proof, but not a warranty. The way RNG is verified is far from perfect.

Where to play?

Best online casinos for money 2024

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Written by Vladislav Dibrov
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